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实验室安全知识,你知道多少?

时间:2019-07-02    PV:  次

(一)化学实验室家具实验室安全知识

实验室中,经常与毒性很强、有腐蚀性、易燃烧和具有爆炸性的化学药品直接接触,常常使用易碎的玻璃和瓷质器皿以及在煤气、水、电等高温电热设备的环境下进行着紧张而细致的工作,因此,必须十分重视安全工作。

1.进入实验室开始工作前应了解煤气总阀门、水阀门及电闸所在处。离开实验室时,一定要将室内检查一遍,应将水、电、煤气的开关关好,门窗锁好。

2、SHIYONGMEIQIDENGSHI,YINGXIANJIANGHUOCHAIDIANRAN,YISHOUZHIHUOCHAIJINKAOJINDENGKOU,YISHOUMANKAIMEIQIMEN。BUNENGXIANKAIMEIQIMEN,HOURANHUOCHAI。DENGYANDAXIAOHEHUOLIQIANGRUO,YINGGENJUSHIYANDEXUYAOLAIDIAOJIE。YONGHUOSHI,YINGZUODAOHUOZHERENZAI,RENZOUHUOMIE。

3.SHIYONGDIANQISHEBEI(RUHONGXIANG、HENGWENSHUIYU、LIXINJI、DIANLUDENG)SHI,YANFANGCHUDIAN;JUEBUKEYONGSHISHOUHUOZAIYANJINGPANGSHISHIKAIGUANDIANZHAHEDIANQIKAIGUAN。YINGGAIYONGSHIDIANBIJIANCHADIANQISHEBEISHIFOULOUDIAN,FANSHILOUDIANDEYIQI,YILVBUNENGSHIYONG。

4.SHIYONGNONGSUAN、NONGJIAN,BIXUJIWEIXIAOXINDICAOZUO,FANGZHIJIANCHU。YONGYIYEGUANLIANGQUZHEIXIESHIJISHI,BIXUSHIYONGXIANGPIQIU,JUEDUIBUNENGYONGKOUXIQU。RUOBUSHENJIANZAISHIYANTAISHANGHUODIMIAN,BIXUJISHIYONGSHIMOBUCAXIGANJING。RUGUOCHUJIPIFUYINGLIJIZHILIAO。

5.SHIYONGKERANWU,TEBIESHIYIRANWU(RUYIMI、BINGTONG、YICHUN、BEN、JINSHUNADENG)SHI,YINGTEBIEXIAOXIN。BUYAODALIANGFANGZAIZHUOSHANG,GENGBUYAOZAIKAOJINHUOYANCHU。ZHIYOUZAIYUANLIHUOYUANSHI,HUOJIANGHUOYANXIMIEHOU,CAIKEDALIANGQINGDAOYIRANYETI。DIFEIDIANDEYOUJIRONGJIBUZHUNZAIHUOSHANGZHIJIEJIARE,ZHINENGZAISHUIYUSHANGLIYONGHUILIULENGNINGGUANJIAREHUOZHENGLIU。

华夏棋牌6.RUGUOBUSHENQINGCHULEXIANGDANGLIANGDEYIRANYETI,ZEYINGANXIAFACHULI:

华夏棋牌(1)LIJIGUANBISHINEISUOYOUDEHUOYUANHEDIANJIAREQI。

华夏棋牌(2)GUANMEN,KAIQIXIAOCHUANGJICHUANGHU。

(3)YONGMAOJINHUOMOBUCASHISACHUDEYETI,BINGJIANGYETININGDAODADERONGQIZHONG,RANHOUZAIDAORUDAISAIDEBOLIPINGZHONG。

华夏棋牌7.YONGYOUYUCAOZUOSHI,YINGXIAOXINJIARE,BUDUANYONGWENDUJICELIANG,BUYAOSHIWENDUCHAOGUOYOUDERANSHAOWENDU。

8.YIRANHEYIBAOZHAWUZHIDECANZHA(RUJINSHUNA、BAILIN、HUOCHAITOU)BUDEDAORUWUWUTONGHUOSHUICAOZHONG,YINGSHOUJIZAIZHIDINGDERONGQINEI。

华夏棋牌9.FEIYE,TEBIESHIQIANGSUANHEQIANGJIANBUNENGZHIJIEDAOZAISHUICAOZHONG,YINGXIANXISHI,RANHOUDAORUSHUICAO,ZAIYONGDALIANGZILAISHUICHONGXISHUICAOJIXIASHUIDAO。

10.毒物应按实验室的规定办理审批手续后领取,使用时严格操作,用后妥善处理。

(二)化学实验室家具实验室灭火法

华夏棋牌SHIYANZHONGYIDANFASHENGLEHUOZAIQIEBUKEJINGHUANGSHICUO,YINGBAOCHIZHENJING。SHOUXIANLIJIQIEDUANSHINEIYIQIEHUOYUANHEDIANYUAN。RANHOUGENJUJUTIQINGKUANGZHENGQUEDIJINXINGQIANGJIUHEMIEHUO。CHANGYONGDEFANGFAYOU:

1.ZAIKERANYETIRANZHESHI,YINGLIJINAKAIZHEHUOQUYUNEIDEYIQIEKERANWUZHI,GUANBITONGFENGQI,FANGZHIKUODARANSHAO。RUOZHEHUOMIANJIJIAOXIAO,KEYONGMOBU、SHIBU、TIEPIANHUOSHATUFUGAI,GEJUEKONGQISHIZHIXIMIE。DANFUGAISHIYAOQING,BIMIANPENGHUAIHUODAFANSHENGYOUYIRANRONGJIDEBOLIQIMIN,DAOZHIGENGDUODERONGJILIUCHUERZAIZHEHUO。

2.JIUJINGJITAKERONGYUSHUIDEYETIZHEHUOSHI,KEYONGSHUIMIEHUO。

华夏棋牌3.QIYOU、YIMI、JIABENDENGYOUJIRONGJIZHEHUOSHI,YINGYONGSHIMIANBUHUOSHATUPUMIE。JUEDUIBUNENGYONGSHUI,FOUZEFANERHUIKUODARANSHAOMIANJI。

4.JINSHUNAZHEHUOSHI,KEBASHAZIDAOZAITADESHANGMIAN。

5.DAOXIANZHEHUOSHIBUNENGYONGSHUIJIERYANGHUATANMIEHUOQI,YINGQIEDUANDIANYUANHUOYONGSILVHUATANMIEHUOQI。

(三)化学实验室家具实验室急救

ZAISHIYANGUOCHENGZHONGBUSHENFASHENGSHOUSHANGSHIGU,YINGLIJICAIQUSHIDANGDEJIJIUCUOSHI。

1.SHOUBOLIGESHANGJIQITAJIXIESUNSHANG:SHOUXIANBIXUJIANCHASHANGKOUNEIYOUWUBOLIHUOJINSHUDENGWUSUIPIAN,RANHOUYONGPENGSUANSHUIXIJING,ZAICADIANJIUHUOZIYAOSHUI,BIYAOSHIYONGSHABUBAOZHA。RUOSHANGKOUJIAODAHUOGUOSHENERDALIANGCHUXUE,YINGXUNSUZAISHANGKOUSHANGBUHEXIABUZHAJINXUEGUANZHIXUE,LIJIDAOYIYUANZHENZHI。

2.TANGSHANG:YIBANYONGNONGDE(90%~95%)JIUJINGXIAODUHOU,TUSHANGKUWEISUANRUANGAO。RUGUOSHANGCHUHONGTONGHUOHONGZHONG(YIJIZHUOSHANG),KEYONGGANLANYOUHUOYONGMIANHUAZHANJIUJINGFUGAISHANGCHU;RUOPIFUQIPAO(ERJIZHUOSHANG),BUYAONONGPOSHUIPAO,FANGZHIGANRAN;GESHANGCHUPIFUCHENGZONGSEHUOHEISE(SANJIZHUOSHANG),YINGYONGGANZAOERWUJUNDEXIAODUSHABUQINGQINGBAOZHAHAO,JISONGYIYUANZHILIAO。

3.QIANGJIAN(RUQINGYANGHUANA,QINGYANGHUAJIA)、NA、JIADENGCHUJIPIFUERYINQIZHUOSHANGSHI,YAOXIANYONGDALIANGZI

华夏棋牌LAISHUICHONGXI,ZAIYONG5%YISUANRONGYEHUO2%YISUANRONGYETUXI。

华夏棋牌4.QIANGSUAN、XIUDENGCHUJIPIFUERZHIZHUOSHANGSHI,YINGLIJIYONGDALIANGZILAISHUICHONGXI,ZAIYI5%TANSUANQINGNARONGYEHUO5%QINGYANGHUAANRONGYEXIDI。

5.RUFENCHUJIPIFUYINQIZHUOSHANG,YINGGAIYONGDALIANGDESHUIQINGXI,BINGYONGFEIZAOHESHUIXIDI,JIYONGYICHUN。

6.RUOMEIQIZHONGDUSHI,YINGDAOSHIWAIHUXIXINXIANKONGQI,RUOYANZHONGSHIYINGLIJIDAOYIYUANZHENZHI。

华夏棋牌7.SHUIYINRONGYIYOUHUXIDAOJINRURENTI,YEKEYIJINGPIFUZHIJIEXISHOUERYINQIJILEIXINGZHONGDU。YANZHONGZHONGDUDEZHENGXIANGSHIKOUZHONGYOUJINSHUQIWEI,HUCHUQITIYEYOUQIWEI;LIUTUOYE,YACHUANGJIZUICHUNSHANGYOULIUHUAGONGDEHEISE;LINBAXIANJITUOYEXIANZHONGDA。RUOBUSHENZHONGDUSHI,YINGSONGYIYUANJIJIU。JIXINGZHONGDUSHI,TONGCHANGYONGTANFENHUOOUTUJICHEDIXIWEI,HUOZHESHIRUDANBAI(RU1 SHENGNIUNAIJIA3 GEJIDANQING)HUOBIMAYOUJIEDUBINGSHIZHIOUTU。

华夏棋牌8.CHUDIAN:CHUDIANSHIKEANXIASHUFANGFAZHIYIQIEDUANDIANLU:

(1)GUANBIDIANYUAN;

华夏棋牌(2)YONGGANMUGUNSHIDAOXIANYUBEIHAIZHEFENKAI;

(3)SHIBEIHAIZHEHETUDIFENLI,JIJIUSHIJIJIUZHEBIXUZUOHAOFANGZHICHUDIANDEANQUANCUOSHI,SHOUHUOJIAOBIXUJUEYUAN。

(四)实验室常识

1. NUODONGGANJINGBOLIYIQISHI,WUSHISHOUZHIJIECHUYIQINEIBU。

华夏棋牌2.LIANGPINGSHILIANGQI,BUYAOYONGLIANGPINGZUOSHENGQI。DAIYOUMOKOUBOLISAIDELIANGPINGDENGYIQIDESAIZI,BUYAOGAICUO。DAIBOLISAIDEYIQIHEBOLIPINGDENG,RUGUOZANSHIBUSHIYONG,YAOYONGZHITIAOBAPINGSAIHEPINGKOUGEKAI。

3.XIJINGDEYIQIYAOFANGZAIJIASHANGHUOGANJINGSHABUSHANGLIANGGAN,BUNENGYONGMOBUCASHI;GENGBUNENGYONGMOBUCASHIYIQINEIBI。

华夏棋牌4.CHUWEISHENGWUSHIYANCAOZUOYAOQIUWAI,BUYAOYONGMIANHUADAITIXIANGPISAIHUOMUSAIDUPINGKOUHUOSHIGUANKOU。

华夏棋牌5.BUYAOYONGZHIPIANFUGAISHAOBEIHEZHUIXINGPINGDENG。

6.BUYAOYONGLVZHICHENGLIANGYAOPIN,GENGBUNENGYONGLVZHIZUOJILU。

7.BUYAOYONGSHILAFENGBIJINGXIYAOPINDEPINGKOU,YIMIANCHANHUN。

8.BIAOQIANZHIDEDAXIAOYINGYURONGQIXIANGCHENG,HUOYONGDAXIAOXIANGDANGDEBAIZHI,JUEDUIBUNENGYONGLVZHI。BIAOQIANSHANGYAOXIEMINGWUZHIDEMINGCHENG、GUIGEHENONGDU、PEIZHIDERIQIJIPEIZHIREN。BIAOQIANYINGTIEZAISHIJIPINGHUOSHAOBEIDE2/3CHU,SHIGUANDENGXIZHANGXINGRONGQIZETIEZAISHANGBU。

华夏棋牌9.SHIYONGQIANBIXIEBIAOJISHI,YAOZAIBOLIYIQIDEMOSHABOLICHU。RUYONGBOLILABIHUOSHUIBURONGXINGYOUQIBI,ZEXIEZAIBOLIRONGQIDEGUANGHUAMIANSHANG。

10.QUYONGSHIJIHEBIAOZHUNRONGYEHOU,XULIJIJIANGPINGSAIYAN,FANGHUIYUANCHU。QUCHUDESHIJIHEBIAOZHUNRONGYE,RUWEIYONGJIN,QIEWUDAOHUIPINGNEI,YIMIANDAIRUZAZHI。

华夏棋牌11.FANSHIFASHENGYANWU、YOUDUQITIHEYOUCHOUWEIQITIDESHIYAN,JUNYINGZAITONGFENGCHUNEIJINXING。CHUMENYINGJINBI,FEIBIYAOSHIBUNENGDAKAI

华夏棋牌(WU)BOLIYIQIDEXIDIJIGEZHONGXIYEDEPEIZHIFA

SHIYANZHONGSUOSHIYONGDEBOLIYIQIQINGJIEYUFOU,ZHIJIEYINGXIANGSHIYANJIEGUO,WANGWANGYOUYUYIQIDEBUQINGJIEHUOBEIWURANERZAOCHENGJIAODADESHIYANWUCHA,SHENZHIHUICHUXIANXIANGFANDESHIYANJIEGUO。YINCI,BOLIYIQIDEXIDIQINGJIEGONGZUOSHIFEICHANGZHONGYAODE。

1.CHUYONGBOLIYIQIDEQINGXI

华夏棋牌XINGOUMAIDEBOLIYIQIBIAOMIANCHANGFUZHEYOUYOULIDEJIANXINGWUZHI,KEXIANYONGXIDILINGXISHIYE、FEIZAOSHUIHUOQUWUFENDENGXISHUAZAIYONGZILAISHUIXIJING,RANHOUJINPAOZAI1%~2%YANSUANRONGYEZHONGGUOYE(BUSHAOYU4 XIAOSHI),ZAIYONGZILAISHUICHONGXI,ZUIHOUYONGZHENGLIUSHUICHONGXI2~3 CI,ZAI80~100℃HONGXIANGNEIKAOGANBEIYONG。

2.SHIYONGGUODEBOLIYIQIDEQINGXI

(1)YIBANBOLIYIQI:RUSHIGUAN、SHAOBEI、ZHUIXINGPINGDENG(BAOKUOLIANGTONG),XIANYONGZILAISHUIXISHUAZHIWUWUWU;ZAIXUANYONGDAXIAOHESHIDEMAOSHUAZHANQUXIDILINGXISHIYEHUOJINRUXIDILINGXISHIYENEI,JIANGQIMINNEIWAI(TEBIESHINEIBI)XIXINSHUAXI,YONGZILAISHUICHONGXIGANJINGHOU,ZHENGLIUSHUICHONGXI2~3 CI,KAOGANHUODAOZHIZAIQINGJIECHU,GANHOUBEIYONG。FANXIJINGDEBOLIQIMIN,BUYINGZAIQIBISHANGDAIYOUSHUIZHU,FOUZEBIAOSHISHANGWEIXIGANJING,YINGZAIANSHANGSHUFANGFAZHONGXINXIDI。RUOFAXIANNEIBIYOUNANYIQUDIAODEWUJI,YINGFENBIESHIYONGXIASHUGEZHONGXIDIJIYUYIQINGCHU,ZAIZHONGXINCHONGXI。

(2)LIANGQI:RUYIYEGUAN、DIDINGGUAN、LIANGPINGDENG。SHIYONGHOUYINGLIJIJINPAOYULIANGSHUIZHONG,WUSHIWUZHIGANHE。GONGZUOWANBIHOUYONGLIUSHUICHONGXI,QUFUZHEDESHIJI、DANBAIZHIDENGWUZHI,LIANGGANHOUJINPAOZAIGESUANXIYEZHONG4~6 XIAOSHI(HUOGUOYE),ZAIYONGZILAISHUICHONGFENCHONGXI、ZUIHOUYONGSHUICHONGXI2~4 CI,FENGGANBEIYONG。

(3)QITA:JUYOUCHUANRANXINGYANGPINDERONGQI,RUBINGDU、CHUANRANBINGHUANZHEDEXUEQINGDENGZHANWUGUODERONGQI,

YINGXIANJINXINGGAOYA(HUOQITAFANGFA)XIAODUHOUZAIJINXINGQINGXI。SHENGGUOGEZHONGYOUDUYAOPIN,TEBIESHIJUDUYAOPINHEFANGSHEXINGTONGWEISUDENGWUZHIDERONGQI,BIXUJINGGUOZHUANMENCHULI,QUEZHIMEIYOUCANYUDUWUCUNZAIFANGKEJINXINGQINGXI。

华夏棋牌3.XIDIYEDEZHONGLEIHEPEIZHIFANGFA

华夏棋牌(1)GESUANXIYE(ZHONGGESUANJIA-LIUSUANXIYE,JIANCHENGWEIXIYE)GUANGFANYONGYUBOLIYIQIDEXIDI。CHANGYONGDEPEIZHIFANGFAYOUXIASHUSIZHONG:

① QU100mL GONGYENONGLIUSUANZHIYUSHAOBEINEI,XIAOXINJIARE,RANHOUXIAOXINMANMANJIARU5g ZHONGGESUANJIAFENMO,BIANJIABIANJIAOBAN,DAIQUANBURONGJIEHOULENGQUE,ZHUYUJUBOLISAIDEXIKOUPINGNEI。

② CHENGQU5g ZHONGGESUANJIAFENMOZHIYU250mL SHAOBEIZHONG,JIASHUI5mL,JINLIANGSHIQIRONGJIE。MANMANJIARUNONGLIUSUAN100mL,SUIJIASUIJIAOBAN。LENGQUEHOUZHUCUNBEIYONG。

华夏棋牌③ CHENGQU80g ZHONGGESUANJIA,RONGYU1000mL ZILAISHUIZHONG,MANMANJIARUGONGYELIUSUAN100mL(BIANJIABIANYONGBOLIBANGJIAODONG)。

华夏棋牌④ CHENGQU200g ZHONGGESUANJIA,RONGYU500mL ZILAISHUIZHONG,MANMANJIARUGONGYELIUSUAN500mL(BIANJIABIANJIAOBAN)。

华夏棋牌(2)NONGYANSUAN(GONGYEYONG):KEXIQUSHUIGOUHUOMOUXIEWUJIYANCHENDIAN。

(3)5%CAOSUANRONGYE:YONGSHUDILIUSUANSUANHUA,KEXIQUGAOMENGSUANJIADEHENJI。

(4)5%~10%LINSUANSANNA(Na3PO4·12H2O)RONGYE:KEXIDIYOUWUWU。

(5)30%XIAOSUANRONGYE:XIDICO2 CEDINGYIQIJIWEILIANGDIGUAN。

(6)5%~10%YIERANSIYISUANERNA(EDTA-Na2)RONGYE:JIAREZHUFEIKEXITUOBOLIYIQINEIBIDEBAISECHENDIANWU。

(7)NIAOSUXIDIYE:WEIDANBAIZHIDELIANGHAORONGJI,SHIYONGYUXIDISHENGDANBAIZHIZHIJIJIXUEYANGDERONGQI。

(8)JIUJINGYUNONGXIAOSUANHUNHEYE:ZUISHIHEYUXIJINGDIDINGGUAN,ZAIDIDINGGUANZHONGJIARU3mL JIUJING,RANHOUYANGUANBIMANMANJIARU4mL NONGXIAOSUAN(BIZHONG1.4),GAIZHUDIDINGGUANGUANKOU,LIYONGSUOCHANSHENGDEYANGHUADANXIJINGDIDINGGUAN。

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